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Current stem cells to protect yourself in the future StemSource® stem cell bank (cryopreservation system for adipose tissue-derived stem cells) Comparison

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 the stem cell bank	FAQ
  • Comparison of stem cells
  • Features of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

Comparison of stem cells

Problems with ES cells and iPS cells

Universities and research institutes around the world are now investigating stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) cells collected from human embryos (fertilized eggs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells prepared by transferring four genes into human somatic cells such as skin cells and the amnion. ES cells use human fertilized eggs and raises ethical problems, and iPS cells use a cancer-related gene (*1) and have the problem of an increased incidence of cancer.
In addition, study results are reported every day. Because of a limited amount of collectable stem cells and the small number of stem cells, culturing is necessary in the use of ES cells and iPS cells.

*1: In May 2009, researchers at Harvard University in the United States successfully prepared iPS cells without the use of genes or viruses with oncogenic potential. However, their procedures require eight weeks, double the period required by conventional procedures, and the efficiency is one-tenth that of standard methods. Their research is now ongoing.

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells that are superior in all aspects

The StemSource® Stem Cell Bank at Seishin Regenerative Medicine uses adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADRC) extracted from your fat. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are free from ethical problems and cancer risks associated with ES cells and iPS cells. The use of the Celution® 900/MB System has the advantage of eliminating the need for culturing.

Comparison of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (regenerative cells, ADRC) and other stem cells
  Adipose tissue-derived stem cells
(regenerative cells: ADRC)
ES cells iPS cells Cloned ES cells
Origin
Somatic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells
 Induced pluripotent
stem cells
Embryonic stem cells
Cell source Your own adipose tissue Human embryo (fertilized egg)) Human somatic cell (such as the skin) Human somatic cell and enucleated egg
Preparation
procedure
Aspirated fat is subjected to Celution® 900/MB System for automatic separation, cleaning, and extraction
(for approximately 1 hour).
Celution® 900/MB System
Inner cells are collected from an embryo (fertilized egg) are cultured.
Collection of inner cells from the embryo
Somatic cells are transfected with two to four genes and cultured.
omatic cells
A nucleus containing genes from a somatic cell is transferred to an enucleated egg to produce a clone embryo and cultured. Inner cells are taken for preparation.
Culture of the cloned embryo
Gene
No addition
No addition
Addition of two to four genes
(cancer-related gene)
No addition
Culture
Unnecessary
Necessary
Necessary
Unnecessary
Advantage ・Use of autologous tissue and no ethical problem
・Proven safety because of no need for genes
・Weight loss by liposuction
・Long history of research in many countries
・Proven safety because of no need for genes
・Preparation of a large number of cells ・No rejection, a problem with ES cells
Disadvantage ・Need for liposuction
・Variable quality of stem cells depending on liposuction technique
・Ethical problem associated with the use of a fertilized egg
・Inability to prepare a large number of cells
・Problem associated with the use of another person’s cells
・Problem associated with the use of a cancer-related gene
・Problem associated with the use of another person’s cells
・Problems associated with the use of an egg and clone technology, ethical problems associated with cloning
・Problem associated with the use of another person’s cells
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Why are adipose tissue-derived stem cells stored? Features of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

Differentiation into any cell

Stem cells Through a variety of mechanisms, adipose tissue-derived stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than other stem cells and have many roles. Their major roles include wound healing, differentiation (transformation), immunomodulation, angiogenesis, prevention of cell death, and paracrine signaling (*). This suggests that adipose tissue-derived stem cells should be more versatile than other stem cells and may be used for the treatment of a variety of diseases.

* Secretory signaling of endocrine substances to act on nearby cells

 Feature 2	Great angiogetic potential and nerve regeneration

Relative QuantificationStudies demonstrate that adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce more growth factors and cytokines*1 than cord blood-derived and bone marrow-derived stem cells. The figure on the right shows the amount of growth factors induced by adipose tissue-derived stem cells. In particular, the stem cells induce large amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes the growth and neogenesis of vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblast growth factor (VEGF-C), which promotes the production of collagen and elastin.

Moreover, nerve regeneration occurred in some patients undergoing transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells, suggesting the possibility of further expansion of indications in the future.

*1 Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells and have a role in regulating biological functions and controlling the onset of diseases.

Mechanism of angiogenesis by adipose tissue-derived stem cells

Mechanism of angiogenesis by adipose tissue-derived stem cells

 Clinical studies of transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (as of February 2010)
Clinical studies Preclinical studies
  • Breast reconstruction
  • Radiation necrosis
  • Heart disease
  • Tracheal regeneration
  • Wound healing
  • Maxillary reconstruction
  • Skull bone regeneration
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • Facial rejuvenation
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Complications of bone marrow transplantation
  • Stroke
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Tendon injury
  • Hepatitis and fatty liver
  • Renal injury
  • Intervertebral disc injury
  • Muscle injury
  • Corneal regeneration
  • Arthritis
  • Periodontal disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Lung disease
  • Vocal fold regeneration

Feature 3	Timely therapy without the need for culturing

Timely therapy without the need for culturing ES cells, iPS cells, and cord blood-derived stem cells require seven to eight weeks of culturing after tissue collection to increase the number of stem cells because the number of stem cells present in collected cells is very small. Bovine serum (*1) is used as the culture medium (nutrients for culture), raising an ethical problem. For each patient, as many as 70 dishes (150 mm in diameter) are needed for each cell type. The procedures are costly and time-consuming, and thus therapy is expensive.
However, the probability of stem cells is much higher in adipose tissue than in any other cell source. This indicates that stem cells are abundant in adipose tissue. Another advantage is that a substantial number of fresh stem cells may be used soon after collection from adipose tissue without culturing.

Comparison of somatic stem cell sources
Cell source Yield of stem cells Cultures for preparation
of high-density stem cells
Eligible persons Physical burden
Bone marrow Slightly highSlightly high May be necessary No limitation Heavy
Skin High Necessary No limitation Light
Cord blood Very low Necessary Pregnant women Light
Placenta Unconfirmed Necessary Pregnant women Light
Skeletal muscle High Necessary No limitation Heavy
Adipose tissue Very high Unnecessary No limitation Rather heavy
Amniotic fluid Unconfirmed Unnecessary Pregnant women Light
Amnion (*2) High Necessary Pregnant women Light

*1: In February 2010, a research team, including research institutes in the United States, Kyoto University, and Astellas Pharma, successfully prepared a new type of pluripotent cells (iPS cells) from adipose tissue-derived stem cells without the use of animal cells. Their method allows preparation with a higher efficiency than the conventional method but still requires cultures and the addition of genes.

*2: In November 2009, a group of researchers at Kyoto University successfully prepared iPS cells with high efficiencies from the amnion surrounding an embryo. They reported that the transfer of four genes into amniotic cells, in which two endogenous genes were active, produced iPS cells 10 times more efficiently than the conventional method. However, the amnion should be stored at delivery, and eligible persons are limited.

 Does the stem cell bank require hospitalization? How about physical burden? It is an ambulatory operation. Flowchart of the stem cell bank For more information (flowchart of the stem cell bank)

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  • What is the stem cell bank? TOP
  • Value of stem cells
  • Comparison
  • Treatment steps